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1873-1928
A A Bogdanov

Alexander Bogdanov was a Russian revolutionary (once a member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party) and philosopher.

In 1908 he published a science-fiction novel "The Red Star".

"Socialism" means a "New World", like that discovered by Columbus. Hence, A. Bogdanov (1873-1928) attempts to imagine such a society on Mars. This gives him a space for fantasy.

Bogdanov posits before us a goal which the future society must achieve. This is upbringing people similar to engineer Manny, who is the leader of the expedition of Martians to Earth. He is not a worker-automaton, but a creator.

Leonid is a human on Earth. He is invited by the Martians to visit Mars. So, what does he find there?

Bogdanov did not foresee an end to the industrial revolution, i.e. a transition to a post-industrial type of production. That's why he continues to divide the Martian society into "workers" and "specialists".

However, in his later book, "Essays in the Organizational Science" ("Очерки организационной науки"), Bogdanov notes that "organization" essentially means the same as "production".  The word "organization" is used in reference to people, while "production" is used in reference to things.

The manner of education which Bogdanov proposes is reminiscent of J.J. Rousseau's "Emile". For example, Rousseau suggests studying geography by travelling around one's neighborhood, before studying the maps. In other words, Bogdanov suggests a gradual transition from concrete facts and pieces of information to theoretical knowledge.

Bogdanov was going in the direction of monism of knowledge. To that end, he published "Tectology", in 1920's, which is seen as an early version of systems theory . Wikipedia writes on tectology:

"a discipline that consisted of unifying all social, biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships and by seeking the organizational principles that underlie all systems"

It continues:

"The starting point in Bogdanov's Universal Science of Organization - Tectology (1913-1922) was that nature has a general, organized character, with one set of laws of organization for all objects. This set of laws also organizes the internal development of the complex units, as implied by Simona Poustilnik's "macro-paradigm", which induces synergistic consequences into an adaptive assembling phenomenon (1995). Bogdanov's visionary view of nature was one of an 'organization' with interconnected systems. Bogdanov'sTectology outlined the concepts and concerns of Complexity Theory a full 50 years in advance of chaos and fractal mathematics."

See:

What I think of Alexander Bogdanov's "Tectology"

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