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Definition:

"Philosophy" consists of two words: "phil" means "love", and "sophia" means "wisdom". Hence, philosophy may be defined as love of wisdom.

Philosophy, as a form of knowledge, appears after "Art ", and specifically it comes after "Poetry ", as we see the earliest forms of philosophy being compsed in verse. 

Philosophy leads to "Science " as the next form of knowledge. 

Best introduction to philosophy is history of philosophy. Here, we recommend:

  1. Diogenes Laertius, "Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers " (audiobook)
  2. G.W.F. Hegel , "History of Philosophy"
  3. Bertrand Russell , "History of Western Philosophy " (audiobook)

Branches of philosophy:

  1. Logic
  2. Dialectics
  3. Theory of knowledge
  4. Ontology
  5. Aesthetics

Philosophers:

  1. Plato , 428-348 B.C.
  2. Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.
  3. Marcus Aurelius , 121-180 A.D.
  4. Diogenes Laertius , 3rd century A.D.
  5. Machiavelli , 1469-1527
  6. Francis Bacon , 1561-1626
  7. Descartes, 1596-1650
  8. Spinoza , 1632-1677
  9. Leibniz, 1646-1716
  10. David Hume , 1711-1776
  11. Rousseau , 1712-1778
  12. Immanuel Kant , 1724-1804
  13. Hegel, 1770-1831
  14. Ralph Waldo Emerson , 1803-1882
  15. Henry David Thoreau , 1817-1862
  16. John Dewey , 1859-1952

Other languages:

Философия

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