Science is creation and organization of knowledge in the form which follows that of philosophy . Similarly to empirical philosophy, science relies upon careful observations of nature; science attempts to formulate laws of nature more carefully than philosophy. In other words, it doesn't jump to conclusions from sketchy evidence.

Application of science to everyday problems is technology .

Science corresponds to the industrial stage of development of society. Industrialization means specialization, e.g. from a craftsmen into workers performing special, very limited operations. Same dialectic takes place in science, as it develops from philosophy into a number of special branches of knowing. These do not communicate well with each other, and ultimately with practice, which ultimately will lead to the downfall of science as a way of knowledge. 

Science is already being replaced by a number of disciplines which unify knowledge. These are: 1) systems theory, 2) map of knowledge.

History of science:

  1. "History of science, technology and knowledge in general ", notes from 2013
  2. "A Short History of Nearly Everything" by Bill Bryson, 2003; PDF hereaudiobook here
  3. Popularization of science

Classification of sciences by August Compte, XIX century

Branches of science:
  1. Cosmology
  2. Mathematics
  3. Cybernetics
  4. Physics
  5. Chemistry
  6. Geology
  7. Oceanography
  8. Biology
  9. Botany
  10. Zoology
  11. Paleontology
  12. Anthropology
  13. History
  14. Productive forces
  15. Logic
  16. Ontology

Publications in science:

  1. Articles on science, from
  2. - open access to the latest research in "hard" sciences: physics, math, etc.
  3. Popular science
  4. Singularity

Scientific methodology:

  1. Thought experiment

Other languages:


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