Abolition of Suffering -  the bioethical school and movement that endorses the use of biotechnology to maximize happiness and eliminate suffering... Abolitionists propose paradise engineering,[1][2] i,e., the use of technologies like psychopharmaceuticals and genetic engineering to replace the signalling role of pain as it exists today with information-signalling gradients of well-being.

Fountain of youth

The Fountain of Youth by Lucas Cranach the Elder

Transhumanism - an international cultural and intellectual movement with an eventual goal of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. 

Artificial brain -A serious long term project to create machines with strong AI. Strong AI is hypothetical artificial intelligence that matches or exceeds human intelligence

IBM Blue Brain project - an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse-engineering the mammalian brain down to the molecular level. The aim of the project, founded in May 2005 by the Brain and Mind Institute of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland, is to study the brain's architectural and functional principles

Brain-computer interface - a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device...  neuroprosthetics applications that aim at restoring damaged hearing, sight and movement. Thanks to the remarkable cortical p

2-headed dog

2 headed dog, 1959

lasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels

Mind uploading -  the hypothetical process of copying or transferring a conscious mind from a brain to another storage me

dium by scanning and mapping a biological brain

Neuroprosthetics - series of devices that can substitute a motor, sensory or cognitive modality that might have been damaged as a result of an injury or a disease

Retinal implant -  restores useful vision to people who have lost their vision due to degenerative eye conditions.

Head translplant

More here  

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.