1. Socialism has become a science in the middle of the XIX century. It has started to be realized first in the Paris Commune, and then in the Soviet Russia. If “socialism” means a society in which there is a “withering away” of social classes, then socialism is still ahead of us, and the process of transition towards it really does take centuries, as Pablo argues.
2. Taking away the power from capitalists in separate, economically backward countries does not mean that we have socialism there. These are “transitional states”.
3. Bureaucratic deformations are typical for all transitional societies. The basic reason for these deformations consists in a poor development of the productive forces. Hence, these deformations cannot be cured solely by political methods, such as urging workers to take an active control over everyday life.
4. The poorer a society is, the more pronounced will be the bureaucratic deformations. And visa versa: the more developed a society is, the less there will be such deformations.
In his work The 4th International : What It Is, What It Aims At, 1958, Pablo:
1. points that the direction of the world revolution has taken the opposite course than foreseen by the founders of Marxism. Nowadays, the world revolution develops from the periphery towards the center. Hence, it is possible that American capital will be the last one to fall.
2. The workers’ uprisings, as those in the East Germany in 1953, were the beginnings of political revolutions. To this list, we can add the events in Hungary in 1956, in Czechoslovakia in 1968, in Poland in 1980. These, and other similar events (such as “perestroika” in the USSR) reveal that if there is a democratic movement in a transitional society, while the bureaucracy is in power, such a society, instead of turning to democratic socialism, will turn towards capitalist restoration. Hence, first that needs to be done is getting rid of the bureaucracy, and then turning towards democratization. But, in order to have a revolution, a mass movement is necessary.
3. Pablo has created a new concept of a “war-revolution”. These two concepts are interrelated. We have seen how a counterrevolutionary war, started by imperialism, leads to a revolution, e.g. Russia in 1917. On the other hand, a revolution means a civil war, for no old ruling class will give up its power, its privileges, its hold on property, without fighting.