From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the context of general robotics, most types of robots would fall into the category of robotic arms
· Some robots are programmed to faithfully carry out specific actions over and over again (repetitive actions) without variation and with a high degree of accuracy. These actions are determined by programmed routines that specify the direction, acceleration, velocity, deceleration, and distance of a series of coordinated motions.
· Other robots are much more flexible as to the orientation of the object on which they are operating or even the task that has to be performed on the object itself, which the robot may even need to identify. For example, for more precise guidance, robots often contain machine vision sub-systems acting as their visual sensors, linked to powerful computers or controllers. Artificial intelligence, or what passes for it, is becoming an increasingly important factor in the modern industrial robot.
The earliest known industrial robot, conforming to the ISO definition was completed by "Bill" Griffith P. Taylor in 1937 and published in Meccano Magazine, March 1938. The crane-like device was built almost entirely using Meccano parts, and powered by a single electric motor. Five axes of movement were possible, including grab and grab rotation. Automation was achieved using punched paper tape to energise solenoids, which would facilitate the movement of the crane's control levers. The robot could stack wooden blocks in pre-programmed patterns. The number of motor revolutions required for each desired movement was first plotted on graph paper. This information was then transferred to the paper tape, which was also driven by the robot's single motor. Chris Shute built a complete replica of the robot in 1997. - Marxists should have foreseen this!
Industrial robotics took off quite quickly in Europe, with both ABB Robotics and KUKA Robotics bringing robots to the market in 1973. ABB Robotics (formerly ASEA) introduced IRB 6, among the world's first commercially available all electric micro-processor controlled robot. The first two IRB 6 robots were sold to Magnusson in Sweden for grinding and polishing pipe bends and were installed in production in January 1974. Also in 1973 KUKA Robotics built its first robot, known as FAMULUS, also one of the first articulated robots to have six electromechanically driven axes.
Interest in robotics increased in the late 1970s and many US companies entered the field, including large firms like General Electric, and General Motors (which formed joint venture FANUC Robotics with FANUC LTD of Japan).
Estimated worldwide annual supply of industrial robots (in units):
|2014 (forecast)||205,000 |
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The main advantages of automation are:
· Increased throughput or productivity.
· Improved quality or increased predictability of quality.
· Improved robustness (consistency), of processes or product.
· Increased consistency of output.
· Reduced direct human labor costs and expenses. - (This also means a declining rate of profit!!! End of capital!)
The following methods are often employed to improve productivity, quality, or robustness.
· Install automation in operations to reduce cycle time.
· Install automation where a high degree of accuracy is required.
· Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.
· Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.)
· Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
The Paradox of Automation says that the more efficient the automated system, the more crucial the human contribution of the operators. Humans are less involved, but their involvement becomes more critical.
Lights out (manufacturing)From Wikipedia
FANUC, the Japanese robotics company, has been operating a "lights out" factory for robots since 2001. Robots are building other robots at a rate of about 50 per 24-hour shift and can run unsupervised for as long as 30 days at a time. "Not only is it lights-out," says Fanuc vice president Gary Zywiol, "we turn off the air conditioning and heat too."
In the Netherlands, Philips uses lights-out manufacturing to produce electric razors, with 128 robots from Adept Technology. The only humans are nine quality assurance workers at the end of the manufacturing process.
Mobile industrial robots
From Wikipedia Mobile industrial robots are pieces of machinery that are able to be programmed to perform tasks in an industrial setting. Typically these have been used in stationary and workbench applications... With advances in controls and robotics, current technology has been improved allowing for mobile tasks such as product delivery. Automation began in the automobile industry in the years surrounding WWII (1946)...In its current form, most industrial robots are powered mechanical arms with the ability to perform anthropomorphic actions. Advancements in miniaturization of computers, mathematical control theory as well as improved sensory technologies have had great impact on the feedback control systems that drive robotics. The first industrial robot performed spot welding and die castings in a General Motors factory in New Jersey, USA in 1962. Soon, robotic arms were exploding within the large-scale manufacturing industry and several new companies came into existence including Kuka in 1973, Nachi in 1969, Fanuc in 1974, Yaskawa in 1977, ASEA in 1977, and several others. By 1980, it is estimated a new major robotics company entered the market every month. An Example:
OTTO Motors (a division of Clearpath)
OTTO 1500 self-driving vehicle for heavy-load material transport in warehouses, distribution centers, and factories.
Meant for material transport in industrial centers
- Able to carry 100 kg (OTTO 100) or 1500 kg (OTTO 1500)
- Powered by lithium battery technology
- 6-8 hours operating time (depending on payload)
- Requires no structural changes to building
- Navigates via 2D sensors. Proprietary autonomy software enables dynamic path-planning and obstacle avoidance at speeds matching forklifts (2 m/s).
- Used by GE and John Deere
Kuka mobile robot
- Very widely used—Example: Tesla Motors
- "Mecanum" wheel system: customizeable, modular, heavy-lifting capable
- Very easy to integrate with autonomous robotics and humans
In 2011 the number of industrial robots worldwide was estimated at 150,000 units and by 2014 an average annual growth of about 6% is estimated. Asia is at the top of the growth rate with a percentage of 7%, followed by the US with an increased rate of 6% while on the last place we have Europe with an increase of about 4%. These numbers reveal the trend in automation industry where robots are programmed to do repetitive and different tasks. Two areas have integrated most industrial robots, car manufacturers and the electronics industry.
In 1954 the first patent was registered for an industrial robot by George Devol and two years later the company Unimation began the programmable industrial robot revolution. It took 16 years to release the first electromechanically-driven six axes industrial robot, another year passed before the first robotic arm with feedback from touch and pressure sensors was released. Starting with the year 1974 the world of industrial robots has evolved steadily up to a level of intelligence that allows for pattern recognition, feeling of touched objects, working in the same space with humans, high precision, very high speed in motion and a reduced ground footprint.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1971 – Europe’s first welding transfer line built for Daimler-Benz.
1973 – The world’s first industrial robot with six electromechanically driven axes, known as FAMULUS.
1976 – IR 6/60 – A completely new robot type with six electromechanically driven axes and an offset wrist.
1989 – A new generation of industrial robots is developed – brushless drive motors for a low maintenance and a higher technical availability.
2010 – As the only robot family, the robot series KR QUANTEC completely covers the load range of 90 up to 300 kg with a reach of up to 3100 mm for the first time.
2012 – The new small robot series KR AGILUS is launched.
2014 – On February 9, the company uploaded a video on its official YouTube channel KukaRobotGroup, teasing the audience with their new KUKA robot, specialized in Table Tennis. The teaser video shows a trailer of KUKA's robot initiating fight against a human in Table Tennis. The human is Timo Boll, a legend intable tennis.
(This reminds us that previously "Deep Blue" computerbeat world chess champion Kasparov , 1997)
KUKA concentrates on solutions for the automation of industrial manufacturing processes.
In May 2016, Midea Group offered to buy Kuka for about €4.5 billion ($5 billion). Midea is pursuing to become the largest shareholder by raising its stake beyond 30 percent. Germany Merkel's government is seeking to coordinate an alternative offer for Kuka.
While previously emphasizing customers in the automotive industry, the company has since expanded to other industries.
They are used in a number of large companies, predominantly in the automotive industry, but also in other industries such as the aerospace industry. Specific applications include:
Transport industry: for the transport of heavy loads, where their load capacity and free positioning are used.
· Food and beverage industry: for tasks such as loading and unloading of packaging machines, cutting meat, stacking and palletizing, and quality control.
· Construction industry: e.g. for ensuring an even flow of material.
· Glass industry: used, for instance in the thermal treatment of glass and quartz glass in laboratory glass production, bending and forming operations.
· Foundry and forging industry: the robots' heat and dirt resistance enables them to be used directly before, in and on the casting machines. They can also be used for operations such as deburring, grinding, or drilling, and for quality control.
· Wood industry: for grinding, milling, drilling, sawing, palletising or sorting applications.
· Metal processing: for operations such as drilling, milling, sawing or bending and punching. Industrial robots are used in welding, assembly, loading and unloading processes.
· Stone processing: the ceramic and stone industries use the industrial robots for bridge sawing
From Wikipedia provideautomation products and services such as robotics and computer numerical control systems. FANUC is one of the largest makers of industrial robots in the world. FANUC had its beginnings as part of Fujitsu developing early numerical control (NC) and servo systems. The company name is an acronym forFuji Automatic NUmerical Control. Video of Fanuc robots =Domestic robot=
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
There were an estimated 3,540,000 service robots in use in 2006[clarification needed], compared with an estimated 950,000 industrial robots
Examples of domestic robots in USA:
See "Nanotechnology " category
In the movie “Terminator 2,” the shape-shifting T-1000 robot morphs into a liquid state to squeeze through tight spaces or to repair itself when harmed.
Now a phase-changing material built from wax and foam, and capable of switching between hard and soft states, could allow even low-cost robots to perform the same feat.
More see robots as emerging technologies