A trend toward “One party, two factions” (echo of “One country, two systems” of Deng)

1. “Elitist” coalition, “Shanghai gang” – Jiang Zemin. From coastal regions. Represent capitalists, the middle classes, the coastal regions.

Hu Jintao, leader of China from 2002 to 2012

Hu Jintao, leader of China from 2002 to 2012


“Populist coalition” – Hu Jintao. Connected to the Youth Communist League of 1980’s, when H.J. was a leader of the organization. From inland provinces (“yellow states”),

A growing gap between urban and rural areas, coastal and inland regions,

“Within a generation, China has been transformed from one of the most equitable countries in the world in terms of income distribution to one of the least equitable. In addition, China has paid an enormous cost for single-minded economic growth in terms of a lack of environmental and ecological protection” – problems of social inequality, town vs. country, ecological problems. Huge exploitation. 

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