First to appear was free and open source software.


Free, open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendents of BSD are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops, smartphones (e.g. Android), and other devices.

The person at the head of the movement was Richard Stallman, in 1980's:

Richard Matthew Stallman

Richard Stallman, MIT

"In 1983, Richard Stallman, longtime member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, announced the GNU project, saying that he had become frustrated with the effects of the change in culture of the computer industry and its users.[10] Software development for the GNU operating system began in January 1984, and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded in October 1985. An article outlining the project and its goals was published in March 1985 titled the GNU Manifesto. The manifesto included significant explanation of the GNU philosophy, Free Software Definition and "copyleft" ideas."

Linux logo

Linux kernel, started by Linus Torvalds, was released as freely modifiable source code in 1991. Initially, Linux was not released under a free or open-source software license. However, with version 0.12 in February 1992, he relicensed the project under the GNU General Public License.[11] Much like Unix, Torvalds' kernel attracted the attention of volunteer programmers".

Today, thousands of people cooperate around the Linux project, contributing millions of lines of code.

In 2000's, "open-source hardware" started to appear, headed by RepRap project to provide low-cost 3D printers.


'"'FOSH (free and open-source hardware). The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned so that others can make it - coupling it closely to the maker movement.[1] Hardware design (i.e. mechanical drawings, schematicsbills of materialPCB layout data, HDL source code[2] andintegrated circuit layout data), in addition to the software that drives the hardware, are all released under free/libre terms. The original sharer gains feedback and potentially improvements on the design from the FOSH community.

Prusa i3 MK2

RepRap Prusa I3

By the mid 2000s open source hardware again became a hub of activity due to the emergence of several major open source hardware projects and companies, such as
OpenCoresRepRap (3D printing), Adafruit and SparkFun.

Arduino is another open source hardware (electronics).

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