1. First, Second Opium wars – 1840’s – 1860’s
2. China is divided up by colonial powers: Russia, Britain, France, Germany, Japan.
3. Missionaries (American) go over China, still do. Chinese despise the missionaries, used to kill them.
4. Imperialism responds with “gunboat diplomacy”, more privileges for the West
5. Taiping rebellion – led by Hong, a vision of Christ, “Heavenly Peace” – Taiping, a holy war, redistribute land, equality between men and women. Starts in 1850 (end of second Opium War). Hong and his generals become “decadent”, orgies. Bad administration.
6. At the same time: Mongolia is captured by Russia
7. “Self-strengthening movement” - Reforms after the defeat in the two Opium war – similar to the Crimean war in Russia
8. The Empress Dowager is very conservative, works against modernization
9. A third wave of treaties (treaty of Simonoseki, 1895) – modern industrialization of China starts. As a result of defeats!
10. Racism of Westerners towards the Chinese. Leads to modern Chinese nationalism. Hence, it is anti-capitalist in nature.
11. The Boxer rebellion – 1900’s, “the fists of righteous harmony” – first, agaist the Qing dynasty, then they go against the Western powers
1911 – Qing dynasty collapses, after 2000’s years of dynasty rule