system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.

(Here, the concept of a "system" is broken into 2: "parts" and a "whole".)


The term "system" comes from the Latin word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole compounded of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2]

Some Concepts in systems theory

In the 1980s John H. Holland (1929- ), Murray Gell-Mann (1929- ) and others coined the term "complex adaptive system" at the interdisciplinary Santa Fe Institute.

Systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. 

There are natural and human-made (designed) systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their behavior can be interpreted[by whom?] as purposefull by an observer. Human-made systems are made to satisfy an identified and stated need with purposes that are achieved by the delivery of wanted outputs. 

An open system exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings. Most systems are open systems; like a car, a coffeemaker, or a computer. A closed system exchanges energy, but not matter, with its environment; like Earth or the project Biosphere2 or 3. An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy with its environment. A theoretical example of such system is the Universe.

An economic system is a mechanism (
social institution) which deals with the productiondistribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. The economic system is composed ofpeopleinstitutions and their relationships to resources, such as the convention of property.

(Hence, "revolutions" are all about changing economic and social systems, i.e. a kind of "systems change".)

In computer science and information sciencesystem is a software system which has components as its structure and observable inter-process communications as its behavior.

In engineering and physics, a physical system is the portion of the universe that is being studied (of which a thermodynamic system is one major example). Engineering also has the concept of a system that refers to all of the parts and interactions between parts of a complex project. Systems engineering refers to the branch of engineering that studies how this type of system should be planned, designed, implemented, built, and maintained.

Systems thinking is a style of thinking/reasoning and problem solving. It starts from the recognition of system properties in a given problem.

There are also systems of logic, mathematical systems, military systems, etc.

The concept of a "model" can be used to test our understanding of a "system". 

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Что такое система?

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